Saturday, May 23, 2020

Agriculture | Chapter 4 | Geography 8th |

Book Cover Social Science Geography Class 8th

Agriculture | Chapter 4 | Geography 8th |

Chapter 4 – Agriculture

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Q1. Answer the following questions:

(i). What is agriculture?

Ans. The word agriculture is derived from the Latin words Agri- meaning soil and culture-meaning cultivation or tilling of the soil. It is defined as the science and art of cultivation of the soil, raising crops and rearing livestock.

(ii) Name the factors influencing agriculture.

Ans. The factors influencing agriculture are the favourable topography of soil and climate.

(iii) What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?

Ans. Shifting cultivation or slash-and-burn cultivation is a type of farming activity that involves clearing a plot of land by felling trees, burning the felled trees, mixing the ashes with soil, and then growing crops like maize, yam, potatoes, and cassava on the cleared land. After the soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned and the cultivator moves on to a new plot. This type of farming has the following disadvantages.

(a) Leads to deforestation
(b) Soil becomes susceptible to erosion due to deforestation
(c) Soil loses its fertility due to the erosion of the topsoil

(iv) What is plantation agriculture?

Ans. Plantation agriculture is a type of commercial farming where a single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana, or cotton is grown. A large amount of labour and capital is required in this type of farming. The produce is either processed on the farm itself or in nearby factories. Major plantations are found in the tropical regions of the world, like rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka, etc.

(v). Name the fiber crops and name the climatic conditions required for their growth.

Ans. Cotton and jute are fiber crops.
Climatic conditions required for the growth of cotton:
(a) High temperature
(b) Light rainfall
(c) 210 frost-free days
(d) Bright sunshine
Climatic conditions required for the growth of jute:
(a) High temperature
(b) Heavy rainfall
(c) Humid climate

Q2.  Tick the correct answer:

(i) Horticulture means

(a) Growing of fruits & vegetables

(b) Primitive farming

(c) Growing of wheat

Ans. (a). Horticulture means

(ii) Golden fibre refers to

(a) tea (b) cotton (c) jute

Ans. (c) jute

(iii) Leading producers of coffee

(a) Brazil (b) India (c) Russia

Ans. (a) Brazil

Q3. Give reasons:

(i) In India agriculture is a primary activity.

Ans. In India agriculture is a primary activity because two-thirds of India’s population still depends on agriculture. We all know that agriculture includes the growing of crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers, and rearing livestock.

(ii) Different crops are grown in different regions.

Ans. Different crops are grown in different regions because the growing of crops depends upon the geographical conditions demand to produce, labour, and level of technology. Favourable topography of soil, climates also play an important role in selection of crops to be grown in that area.

Q4.  Distinguish between the followings:

(i)    Primary activities and Tertiary activities.

Ans. Distinction between Primary & Tertiary Activities:

Primary Activities

Tertiary Activities

i. Primary activities are those activities which are associated with the extraction & production of natural resources.

i. Tertiary activities are those activities which provide support to primary and secondary activities through services.

Examples are - Transport, communication,

ii. Examples are - Extraction (mining), gathering, fishing, agriculture.

ii.  Examples are - Trade, banking, media, etc.

 (ii) Subsistence farming and Intensive farming.

Ans. Distinction between Subsistence & Intensive Farming:

Subsistence Farming - This type of farming is carried out to meet the needs of the farmer’s family. It is done generally on a traditional basis using low levels of technology and household labour. A variety of crops are raised in small quantities on a small plot of land.

Intensive Farming - It is a kind of subsistence farming only where a farmer cultivates a small plot of land by simple tools and more labour. Climate with a large number of day’s sunshine and fertile soil help in growing more than one crop on the same plot in a year. This type of farming is common in the thickly populated areas of the monsoon regions of south, southeast, and east Asia


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