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Tuesday, June 23, 2020

Transportation in Plants and Animals | Science 7th | Chapter 11 |

Book Cover Science Class 7th


Transportation in Plants and Animals | Science 7th | Chapter 11 |

Science – Jammu and Kashmir | jandkncert | Class 7th |

Chapter 11: Transportation in Plants and Animals

EXERCISES

(I)  Multiple Choice Questions – Tick Mark the correct choices:

(1) In plants, materials are transported through:

          (a)     Xylem                            (b)     Xylem and phloem

          (c)      Phloem                          (d)     Root hair

Ans. (b) Xylem and phloem

(2) Food is transported in plants through:

          (a)     Xylem                            (b)     Root hair

          (c)      Phloem                          (d)     Diffusion

Ans. (c)      Phloem

(3) Water absorption is more because:

          (a)     of xylem              (b)     of more transpiration

          (c)      of phloem            (d)     more water is required by plant body

Ans. (b)      of more transpiration

(4) Water absorption through roots can be increased by keeping the plant:

          (a)     in bright light               (b)     in dim light

          (c)      in the shade                  (d)     covered with a polythene bag

Ans. (a)      in bright light

(5) The colour of blood is red due to the presence of:

          (a)     chlorophyll           (b)     anthocyanin

          (c)      haemoglobin                (d)     red blood cells

Ans. (c)      haemoglobin

(6) In an adult normal rate of heartbeat is:

          (a)     72 times per minute     (b)     92 times per minute

          (c)      82 times per minute     (d)     62 times per minute

Ans. (a)      72 times per minute

(7) Blood cells which protect the body from infection are:

          (a)     RBC’s                            (b)     Platelets

          (c)      WBC’s                           (d)     Haemoglobin

Ans. (c)      WBC’s

(II) Fill in the blanks:

1. In most animals, circulation is brought about by a liquid called blood.

2. Blood moves through tubes called blood vessels.

3. Two useful things that are circulated in all animals are food and oxygen.

4. The liquid part of blood is called plasma.

5. The substances in red blood cells that link up with oxygen is called haemoglobin.

6. The red colour of blood is due to the presence of haemoglobin in RBC’s.

7. Excretion of wastes in unicellular organisms takes place by diffusion.

8. Getting rid of waste materials in living beings is called excretion.

9. Most liquid wastes are excreted through the skin.

10. The skin helps in the excretion of water and salt.

11. In man, carbon dioxide is excreted through the lungs.

12. Kidneys are made up of a number of filters called nephrons.

13. Kidneys are connected to the urinary bladder by long tubes called ureters.

14. Artificial kidney machines work on the principle of dialysis.

(III) Match the Column A with those in Column B:

 

Column A

Column B

1. Heart

(a) A living pump

2. Food and oxygen

(b) Can poison an organism

3 Waste products

(c) Movement of materials

4. Carrier of oxygen

(d) Materials needed by every living thing

5. Circulation

(e) Pipes for transport in man

6. Arteries and veins

(f) Red blood cells

  

Ans.

 

Column A

Column B

1. Heart

(a) A living pump

2. Food and oxygen

(d) Materials needed by every living thing

3. Waste products

(b) Can poison an organism

4. Carrier of oxygen

(f) Red blood cells

5. Circulation

(c) Movement of materials

6. Arteries and veins

(e) Pipes for transport in man


(IV) Write true or false in front of the statement given below:

1. In spirogyra, transport of materials takes place through osmosis.  False

2. Xylem and phloem are vascular tissues. True

3. ‘Girdling experiment’ demonstrates food synthesis in plants. False

4. Platelets help in the clotting of blood. True

5. In Hydra, excretion takes place through diffusion. True

(V) Answer the following questions:

Q1. How does the transport of material take place in unicellular plants?

Ans. Transport of materials in unicellular plants takes place through diffusion.

Q2. Define diffusion?

Ans. Diffusion is defined as the movement of particles from high concentration to a low concentration until they are spread out evenly.

Q3. What are two aspects of transport in higher plants?

Ans. Two aspects of transport in higher plants are:

(i) Movement of water and minerals from roots carried by xylem to the whole plant body.

(ii) Movement of food material synthesized in leaves, carried out through phloem to whole plant body.

Q4. Mention the functions of (a) Xylem (b) Phloem.

Ans.

(a) Xylem: It carries water and minerals to the whole plant body.

(b) Phloem: It carries, prepared material from leaves to whole plant body.

Q5. Name a process by which water loss takes place in plants.

Ans. Water loss takes in plants by the process of transpiration.

Q6. Define the following:

(i) Circulatory system (ii) Arteries (iii) Veins

Ans. 

(i) Circulatory system: The system of organs which is involved in the transport of substances in animals throughout the body with the help of blood. The

circulatory the system consists of three parts. (i) Heart, (ii) Blood vessels and (iii) Blood.

(ii) Arteries: Arteries are blood vessels in which blood is going away from the heart to all parts of the body. They carry oxygenated (Oxygen-rich) blood.

They lie deep in the tissues except at the wrist, at the temple and along the sides of the neck.

(iii) Veins: Veins are the blood vessels through which the blood comes back to the heart. Veins carry deoxygenated (carbon dioxide-rich, impure) blood.

The lie closer to the skin and can be seen greenish-blue lines in our hands and legs

Q7. Name the main parts of the circulatory system.

Ans. Main parts of the circulatory system are; Heart, Blood vessels and Blood.

Q8. Mention the functions of blood.

Ans.  Functions of Blood:

(i) Blood helps in the transportation of important nutrients and materials to and from the cells and molecules that make up our body.

(ii) It protects our body from the threat of infections and disease-causing bacteria.

(iii) It regulates our body temperature and maintains it to a level that is tolerated by the body easily.

Q9. Describe the functions of the following:

(i) Heart

(ii) Blood vessels

(iii) Red blood cells

(iv) White blood cells

(v) Platelets

Ans.

(i) Heart: The heart is a muscular organ that pumps the blood to all tissues in

our body through a network of blood vessels. The right side of the heart

pumps blood through the lungs where it picks up oxygen. The left side of the

heart receives the blood containing oxygen and pumps the blood t rest of the

body.

(ii) Blood vessels: The blood vessels carry blood from the heart to lungs and whole-body parts.

(iii) Red blood cells: Red blood cells carry oxygen with the help of red pigment,

haemoglobin, to all parts of the body and also give red colour to the blood.

Q10. Describe, in brief, the circulatory system in human beings.

Ans. In human beings, Circulatory System is a transport system moving substances throughout the body with the help of blood. It transports food substances absorbed in the blood through the body so that it reaches every cell that makes up the body. The Circulatory consist of three parts – (i) Heart, (ii) Blood vessels, and (iii) Blood.

Heart acts as a pumping station, that pumps the blood to the lungs and all body parts. Blood vessels carry the blood from and to heart and lungs and from there to all body parts. Blood is fluid flowing in the blood vessels. It consists of liquid plasma and cells, such as Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells, and Blood Platelets. Blood regulates body temperature. The Circulatory system is an important part of the body because it helps in the excretion of waste products through kidneys and skin.

Human Circulatory System


Q11. Name the organ from which oxygenated blood goes into the heart.

Ans. The heart consists of two pumps, one on each side. The left side receives the oxygenated blood from the lungs and sends it through the body. The right side receives it back again with less oxygen and more carbon dioxide and sends it to the lungs.

Q12. Define excretion.

Ans. Excretion is the process of removal of waste products from the body. These waste products are very harmful and toxic and need to be removed from the body because accumulation of waste produces health problems. In humans, organs like lungs, skin, large intestines, kidneys, and liver help in the excretion of these waste products.

Q13. How does excretion occur in lower animals?

Ans. Each organism has a mechanism of its own to remove the waste products. In lower animals, most of the metabolic wastes are removed through the general surface of the body by the simple process of diffusion.

Q14. Why is the process of excretion important for living beings?

Ans. The process of excretion is important for living beings because some of the waste products like urea are very harmful and toxic. These toxic substances produce health problems if accumulated by the body, therefore the process of excretion is important for living beings.

Q15. Name the various organs of excretion.

Ans. Lungs, skin, large intestines, kidneys, and liver are the various organs of excretion.

Q16. What waste products are removed by the following parts?

          (a)     Skin                    (b)     Kidneys

          (d)     Lungs                  (d)     Large intestine

Ans.

(a). Skin: It excretes urea, salt, and excess water by means of sweat glands present in the skin.

(b). Kidneys:  A pair of kidneys helps in the excretion of products like urea and nitrogen in urine.

(c). Lungs: A pair of lungs is used for the excretion of carbon dioxide and water vapour produced during respiration.

(d). Large Intestine: It excretes wastes along with faeces through the anus.

Q17. Name the organs of excretion in earthworms, insects and vertebrates.

Ans.

Earthworm------------Nephridia

Insects------------------Malpighian tubules

Vertebrates------------Kidneys

Q18. Define sweating.

Ans. Sweating is the production of watery fluid from sweat glands in the skin.

Q19. What is the importance of sweating?

Ans. Sweating is important because it produces a cooling effect in our body during the summer.

 


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